Making a Vocabulary List for Wheelock

Banner from Wheelock's Latin Textbook

My colleagues and I wanted to have a table of all of the vocabulary words used in Wheelock’s Latin that also showed the ranking of each word in terms of usage frequency as recorded in Dickinson College Commentaries’ Latin Core Vocabulary list.

I used the helpful Google Doc of all of the vocabulary in Wheelock to get the list of words. DCC thoughtfully makes their Latin Core Vocabulary list available for free as a CSV (bene factum, DCC!). I did some preprocessing of the two sets of information to get two sets of data that I could compare. After that, I used the Python Pandas library to merge the two sets. Overkill? Definitely! But it beats doing the comparison manually!

If you’re curious, you can see the repository with the data and the Python script at https://github.com/sjhuskey/latin-vocabulary.

Here’s the table. It’s sorted by Frequency Rank. You can also download it as a CSV.

Latin Word Definition Wheelock Chapter Part of Speech Semantic Group Frequency Rank
sum, esse, fui, futurum to be, exist 4 Verb: Irregular Life and Being 2
qui, quae, quod (relative pronoun) who, which, what, that 17 Pronoun Pronouns/Interrogatives 3
hic, haec, hoc this; the latter; (at times) he, she, it 9 Pronoun Pronouns/Interrogatives 7
ille, illa, illud that; the former; the famous; (at times) he, she, it 9 Pronoun Pronouns/Interrogatives 8
tu, tui you 11 Pronoun Pronouns/Interrogatives 9
ego, mei I 11 Pronoun Pronouns/Interrogatives 11
is, ea, id he, she, it 11 Pronoun Pronouns/Interrogatives 13
ad (+acc) to(ward), up to, near 8 Preposition Place 14
omnis, omne every, all 16 Adjective: 3rd Declension Measurement 18
nec and not, nor (neque/nec . . . neque/nec 11 Conjunction Conjunctions/Adverbs 19
a/ab (+abl) away from, from; by 14 Preposition Place 21
ipse, ipsa, ipsum (intensive pronoun) myself, yourself, him/her/itself, etc; the very, the actual 13 Pronoun Pronouns/Interrogatives 22
possum, posse, potui to be able, can, could, have power 6 Verb: Irregular Making/Doing 23
magnus, magna, magnum great, large; important 2 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Measurement 25
suus, sua, suum his own, her own, its own, their own 13 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Pronouns/Interrogatives 27
do, dare, dedi, datum to give, offer 1 Verb: 1st Conjugation Social Life 28
video, vidēre, vidi, visum to see; observe, understand 1 Verb: 2nd Conjugation Vision 31
facio, facere, feci, factum to make, do, accomplish 10 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -iō Making/Doing 32
dico, dicere, dixi, dictum to say; tell, speak; name, call 10 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Speech/Oratory 33
atque/ac and, and also, and even 21 Conjunction Conjunctions/Adverbs 35
ac and, and also, and even 21 Conjunction Conjunctions/Adverbs 36
alius, alia, aliud other, another 9 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Pronouns/Interrogatives 37
res, rei (f) thing, matter, business, affair 22 Noun: 5th Declension Life and Being 38
habeo, habēre, habui, habitum to have, hold, possess; consider, regard 3 Verb: 2nd Conjugation Other Senses 39
animus, animi (m) soul, spirit, mind; heart, mind, intellect, courage 5 Noun: 2nd Declension Life and Being 40
meus, mea, meum my 2 Pronoun Pronouns/Interrogatives 41
deus, dei (m) god 6 Noun: 2nd Declension Religion 42
multus, multa, multum many 2 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Measurement 43
tuus, tua, tuum your (singular) 2 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Pronouns/Interrogatives 44
fero, ferre, tuli, latum to bear, bring; suffer, endure, tolerate, say, report 31 Verb: Irregular Verbs of Transport 45
ne 5 Conjunction Conjunctions/Adverbs 47
manus, manus (f) hand; handwriting; band 20 Noun: 4th Declension The Body 48
nullus, nulla, nullum not any; no, none 9 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Pronouns/Interrogatives 49
noster, nostra, nostrum our 5 Pronoun Pronouns/Interrogatives 52
unus, una, unum one, single, alone 9 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Measurement 53
dies, diei (m) day 22 Noun: 5th Declension Lengths of Time 54
idem, eadem, idem the same 11 Pronoun Pronouns/Interrogatives 59
rex, regis (m) king 7 Noun: 3rd Declension The City 60
locus, loci (m) place; passage in literature 9 Noun: 2nd Declension Geography 62
venio, venire, veni, ventum to come 10 Verb: 4th Conjugation Motion 63
pars, partis (f)* part, share; direction 14 Noun: 3rd Declension Measurement 65
volo, velle, volui to wish, want, be willing, will 32 Verb: Irregular Emotions 66
bonus, bona, bonum good, kind 4 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Personality Traits/Characteristics 68
ago, agere, egi, actum to drive, lead, do, act; pass, spend 8 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Verbs of Compelling/Directing 69
terra, terrae (f) land, earth, ground, country 7 Noun: 1st Declension Earth and Water 70
pater, patris (m) father 12 Noun: 3rd Declension The Household 71
neque/nec and not, nor (neque/nec . . . neque/nec 11 Conjunction Conjunctions/Adverbs 72
domus, domus (-i) (f) home, house 37 Noun: 4th Declension The House 73
corpus, corporis (n) body 7 Noun: 3rd Declension The Body 75
aliquis, aliquid someone, somebody, something 23 Pronoun Pronouns/Interrogatives 77
totus, tota, totum whole, entire 9 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Measurement 78
hic, haec, hoc this; the latter; (at times) he, she, it 9 Adverb Place 80
iste, ista, istud that of yours, that; (sometimes pejorative: that despicable, that wretched) 9 Pronoun Pronouns/Interrogatives 81
urbs, urbis (f)* city 14 Noun: 3rd Declension The City 82
peto, petere, petivi, petitum to seek, aim at, beseech 23 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Motion 83
iubeo, iubēre, iussi, iussum to order, bid, command 21 Verb: 2nd Conjugation Justice 84
vir, viri (m) man, hero, husband 3 Noun: 2nd Declension People 85
bellum, belli (n) war 4 Noun: 2nd Declension War and Peace 86
vita, vitae (f) life; mode of life 2 Noun: 1st Declension Life and Being 87
homo, hominis (m) human being, man 7 Noun: 3rd Declension People 88
tempus, temporis (n) time; occasion, opportunity 7 Noun: 3rd Declension Time 89
primus, prima, primum first, foremost, chief, principal 27 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Time 91
hostis, hostis (m)* an enemy (of the state); (plural = the enemy) 18 Noun: 3rd Declension War and Peace 93
mors, mortis (f)* death 14 Noun: 3rd Declension Life and Being 95
eo, ire, ii, itum to go (also: abeo, adeo, exeo, ineo, obeo, pereo, redeo) 37 Verb: Irregular Motion 97
arma, armorum (n) arms, weapons 28 Noun: 2nd Declension War and Peace 98
superus, supera, superum above, upper 27 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Religion 99
vinco, vincere, vici, victum to conquer, overcome 8 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō War and Peace 101
pono, ponere, posui, positum to put, place, set 27 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Verbs of Transport 102
tantus, tanta, tantum so large, so great, of such a size 29 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Measurement 105
teneo, tenere, tenui, tentum to hold, keep, possess; restrain 14 Verb: 2nd Conjugation Other Senses 106
causa, causae (f) cause, reason; case, situation. (in ablative + preceding genitive: for the sake of) 21 Noun: 1st Declension Speech/Oratory 107
sequor, sequi, secutus sum to follow 34 Verb: Deponent Motion 108
credo, credere, credidi, creditum to believe, trust 25 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Education/Knowledge 109
accipio, accipere, accepi, acceptum to take (to one’s self), receive, accept 24 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -iō Social Life 110
virtus, virtutis (f) manliness, courage; excellence, character, worth, virtue 7 Noun: 3rd Declension Personality Traits/Characteristics 111
quaero, quaerere, quaesivi, quaesitum to seek, look for, strive for; ask, inquire, inquire into 24 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Education/Knowledge 113
mitto, mittere, misi, missum to send, let go 11 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Verbs of Compelling/Directing 114
vis, vis (f) force, power, violence (plural = strength) 14 Noun: 3rd Declension War and Peace 115
amor, amoris (m) love 7 Noun: 3rd Declension Love 116
caelum, caeli (n) sky 5 Noun: 2nd Declension Air and Fire 117
sub (+abl with verbs of rest, +acc with verbs of motion) under, up under, close to, at the foot of 7 Preposition Place 118
nox, noctis (f)* night 26 Noun: 3rd Declension Lengths of Time 119
populus, populi (m) people, the people, a nation 3 Noun: 2nd Declension The City 122
caput, capitis (n) head; leader; beginning; life; heading; chapter 11 Noun: 3rd Declension The Body 124
mare, maris (n)* sea 14 Noun: 3rd Declension Earth and Water 125
quidam, quaedam, quiddam certain, some 26 Pronoun Pronouns/Interrogatives 126
mater, matris (f) mother 12 Noun: 3rd Declension The Household 127
quisquis, quidquid whoever, whatever 23 Pronoun Pronouns/Interrogatives 129
capio, capere, cepi, captum to take, capture, seize, get 10 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -iō War and Peace 131
duco, ducere, duxi, ductum to lead, consider, regard; prolong 8 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Verbs of Compelling/Directing 133
nomen, nominis (n) name 7 Noun: 3rd Declension Social Life 135
miser, misera, miserum sad, wretched, miserable, unfortunate 15 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Emotions 137
fortuna, fortunae (f) fortune, luck 2 Noun: 1st Declension Religion 138
novus, nova, novum new; strange 7 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Time 139
gravis, grave heavy, weighty; serious, important; severe, grievous 19 Adjective: 3rd Declension Measurement 140
longus, longa, longum long 16 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Measurement 142
parvus, parva, parvum small, little 4 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Measurement 143
relinquo, relinquere, reliqui, relictum to leave behind, leave, abandon, desert 21 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Motion 144
fio, fieri, factus sum to occur, happen; become; be made, be done 36 Verb: Irregular Life and Being 146
os, oris (n) mouth, face 14 Noun: 3rd Declension The Body 147
alter, altera, alterum the other (of two), second 9 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Measurement 148
ignis, ignis (m)* fire 22 Noun: 3rd Declension Air and Fire 151
timeo, timēre, timui to be afraid, fear 15 Verb: 2nd Conjugation Emotions 153
scelus, sceleris (n) crime, wickedness, evil deed 19 Noun: 3rd Declension Justice 154
debeo, debēre, debui, debitum to owe; ought, must, should 1 Verb: 2nd Conjugation Business/Money 155
vivo, vivere, vixi, victum to live 10 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Life and Being 156
fatum, fati (n) fate; death 29 Noun: 2nd Declension Religion 157
voco, vocāre, vocavi, vocatum to call, summon 1 Verb: 1st Conjugation Speech/Oratory 158
paro, parāre, paravi, paratum to prepare, provide; get, obtain 19 Verb: 1st Conjugation Making/Doing 160
miles, militis (m) soldier 23 Noun: 3rd Declension War and Peace 161
medius, media, medium middle, the middle of 22 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Place 162
audio, audire, audivi, auditum to hear, listen to 10 Verb: 4th Conjugation Other Senses 165
puto, putāre, putavi, putatum to reckon, suppose, judge, think, imagine 25 Verb: 1st Conjugation Education/Knowledge 166
annus, anni (m) year 12 Noun: 2nd Declension Lengths of Time 167
sto, stare, steti, statum to stand, stand still, stand firm 13 Verb: 1st Conjugation Life and Being 168
vox, vocis (f) voice 34 Noun: 3rd Declension Speech/Oratory 169
genus, generis (n) origin; kind, type, sort, class 18 Noun: 3rd Declension The Household 170
refero, referre, rettuli, relatum to carry back, bring back; repeat, answer, report 31 Verb: Irregular Verbs of Transport 171
scio, scire, scivi, scitum to know 21 Verb: 4th Conjugation Education/Knowledge 172
mens, mentis (f)* mind, thought, intention 16 Noun: 3rd Declension The Body 173
licet, licere, licuit (impersonal) it is permitted, one may 37 Verb: Impersonal Justice 175
solus, sola, solum alone, only (non solum . . . sed etiam 9 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Measurement 176
fugio, fugere, fugi, fugiturum to flee, hurry away; escape; go into exile; avoid, shun 10 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -iō Travel 177
ullus, ulla, ulllum any 9 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Pronouns/Interrogatives 178
nemo, nullius, nemini, neminem, nullo/nulla no one, nobody 11 Pronoun Pronouns/Interrogatives 179
natura, naturae (f) nature 10 Noun: 1st Declension Life and Being 180
mos, moris (m) habit, custom, manner; (plural = character, morals) 7 Noun: 3rd Declension Social Life 181
beneficium, beneficii (n) benefit, kindness; favor 19 Noun: 2nd Declension Social Life 182
pectus, pectoris (n) breast, heart 35 Noun: 3rd Declension The Body 183
fides, fidei (f) faith, trust, trustworthiness, fidelity; promise, guarantee, protection 22 Noun: 5th Declension Personality Traits/Characteristics 184
patior, pati, passus sum to suffer, endure; permit 34 Verb: Deponent Verbs of Compelling/Directing 185
cura, curae (f) care, attention, caution, anxiety 4 Noun: 1st Declension Love 186
ira, irae (f) ire, anger 2 Noun: 1st Declension Emotions 187
verbum, verbi (n) word 5 Noun: 2nd Declension Writing/Poetry 188
parens, parentis (m/f) parent 28 Noun: 3rd Declension The Household 190
puer, pueri (m) boy 3 Noun: 2nd Declension People 191
moveo, movēre, movi, motum to move; arouse, affect 18 Verb: 2nd Conjugation Motion 192
dolor, doloris (m) pain, grief 38 Noun: 3rd Declension Emotions 193
gens, gentis (f)* clan, race, nation, people 21 Noun: 3rd Declension The Household 194
modus, modi (m) measure, bound, limit; manner, method, mode, way 22 Noun: 2nd Declension Measurement 195
via, viae (f) road, way, street 10 Noun: 1st Declension Travel 196
quisque, quidque each one, each person, each thing 13 Pronoun Pronouns/Interrogatives 197
amicus, amica, amicum friendly 11 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Personality Traits/Characteristics 198
pes, pedis (m) lower leg, foot 38 Noun: 3rd Declension The Body 199
imperium, imperii (n) power to command, supreme power, authority, command, control, imperium 24 Noun: 2nd Declension War and Peace 200
labor, laboris (m) work, work, toil; a work, production 7 Noun: 3rd Declension Business/Money 201
ingens (gen: ingentis) huge 16 Adjective: 3rd Declension Measurement 202
talis, tale such, of such a sort 34 Adjective: 3rd Declension Measurement 203
apud (+acc) among, in the presence of, at the house of 31 Preposition Place 205
oculus, oculi (m) eye 4 Noun: 2nd Declension The Body 206
vultus, vultus (m) countenance, face 40 Noun: 4th Declension The Body 209
cado, cadere, cecidi, casurum to fall 12 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Violence 210
quis, quid [after: si, nisi, num, or ne] anyone, anything, someone, something 33 Pronoun Pronouns/Interrogatives 212
traho, trahere, traxi, tractum to drag, draw; derive, acquire 8 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Verbs of Compelling/Directing 213
metus, metus (m) fear 20 Noun: 4th Declension Emotions 215
consilium, consilii (n) plan, purpose, counsel, advice, judgement, wisdom 4 Noun: 2nd Declension The City 217
amo, amāre, amavi, amatum to love 1 Verb: 1st Conjugation Love 219
levis, leve light, trivial 17 Adjective: 3rd Declension Measurement 220
poena, poenae (f) penalty, punishment 2 Noun: 1st Declension Justice 223
frater, fratris (m) brother 8 Noun: 3rd Declension The Household 225
malus, mala, malum bad, wicked, evil 4 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Personality Traits/Characteristics 227
iaceo, iacēre, iacui to lie; lie prostrate; lie dead 25 Verb: 2nd Conjugation The House 228
liber, libera, liberum free 5 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Justice 229
liber, libri (m) book 6 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Justice 229
iter, itineris (n) journey; route, road 37 Noun: 3rd Declension Travel 230
ferrum, ferri (n) iron; sword 22 Noun: 2nd Declension Violence 231
spes, spei (f) hope 22 Noun: 5th Declension Emotions 232
puella, puellae (f) girl 2 Noun: 1st Declension People 233
finis, finis (m)* end, limit, boundary; purpose 21 Noun: 3rd Declension Geography 236
gero, gerere, gessi, gestum to carry; carry on, manage, conduct, wage 8 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō War and Peace 237
ne 5 Adverb Pronouns/Interrogatives 238
dux, ducis (m) leader; guide; commander, general 23 Noun: 3rd Declension War and Peace 239
premo, premere, pressi, pressum to press; press hard, pursue 23 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō War and Peace 240
dominus, domini (n) master 40 Noun: 2nd Declension The Household 241
mons, montis (m)* mountain 20 Noun: 3rd Declension Geography 242
litus, litoris (n) shore, coast 23 Noun: 3rd Declension Geography 245
soleo, solēre, solitus sum to be accustomed 37 Verb: 2nd Conjugation Personality Traits/Characteristics 246
equus, equi (m) horse 23 Noun: 2nd Declension Animals/Plants 248
durus, dura, durum hard, harsh, rough, stern, unfeeling, hardy, difficult 29 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Other Senses 249
cogo, cogere, coegi, coactum (cum + ago) to drive/bring together, force, compel 36 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Verbs of Compelling/Directing 250
morior, mori, mortuus sum to die 34 Verb: Deponent Life and Being 253
carmen, carminis (n) song, poem 7 Noun: 3rd Declension Writing/Poetry 254
ratio, rationis (f) reckoning, account; reason, judgement, consideration; system; manner, method 8 Noun: 3rd Declension Education/Knowledge 256
ars, artis (f)* art, skill 14 Noun: 3rd Declension Education/Knowledge 258
dexter, dextra, dextrum right, right 20 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Place 260
signum, signi (n) sign, signal, indication; seal 13 Noun: 2nd Declension War and Peace 261
lex, legis (f) law, statute 26 Noun: 3rd Declension Justice 264
periculum, periculi (n) danger, risk 4 Noun: 2nd Declension Violence 265
nascor, nasci, natus sum to be born; spring forth arise 34 Verb: Deponent Life and Being 266
exercitus, exercitus (m) army 32 Noun: 4th Declension War and Peace 267
ventus, venti (m) wind 39 Noun: 2nd Declension Air and Fire 269
audeo, audēre, ausus sum to dare 7 Verb: 2nd Conjugation Personality Traits/Characteristics 270
aqua, aquae (f) water 14 Noun: 1st Declension Earth and Water 272
rapio, rapere, rapui, raptum to seize, snatch, carry away 21 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -iō Violence 273
tristis, triste sad, sorrowful; joyless, grim, severe 26 Adjective: 3rd Declension Emotions 275
fama, famae (f) rumor, report; fame 2 Noun: 1st Declension Speech/Oratory 278
par (gen: paris) (+dat) equal (to), like 32 Adjective: 3rd Declension Measurement 281
vester, vestra, vestrum your (plural) 6 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Pronouns/Interrogatives 282
flumen, fluminis (n) river 18 Noun: 3rd Declension Earth and Water 283
certus, certa, certum definite, sure, certain, reliable 19 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Measurement 285
fortis, forte brave, strong 16 Adjective: 3rd Declension Personality Traits/Characteristics 286
placeo, placēre, placui, placitum (+dat) to be pleasing to, please 35 Verb: 2nd Conjugation Social Life 287
verto, vertere, verti, versum to turn; change 23 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Motion 288
servo, servāre, servavi, servatum to save, preserve, keep, guard, protect 1 Verb: 1st Conjugation The Household 289
honor, honoris (m) honor, esteem; public office 30 Noun: 3rd Declension The City 290
dignus, digna, dignum (+abl.) worthy, worthy of 29 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Personality Traits/Characteristics 291
tollo, tollere, sustuli, sublatum to raise up, lift up; take away, remove, destroy 22 Verb: Irregular Violence 293
nego, negāre, negavi, negatum to deny, to say that . . . not 25 Verb: 1st Conjugation Speech/Oratory 294
vetus (gen: veteris) old 39 Adjective: 3rd Declension Time 295
trado, tradere, tradidi, traditum to give over, surrender; hand down, transmit, teach (trans + do) 33 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Business/Money 297
lux, lucis (f) light 26 Noun: 3rd Declension Air and Fire 299
sentio, sentire, sensi, sensum to feel, perceive, think, experience 11 Verb: 4th Conjugation Other Senses 302
cedo, cedere, cessi, cessum to go, withdraw; yield to, grant, submit 28 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō War and Peace 304
saxum, saxi (n) rock 40 Noun: 2nd Declension Earth and Water 306
-ve or (suffix) 33 Conjunction Conjunctions/Adverbs 307
aetas, aetatis (f) period of life, life, age, an age, time 16 Noun: 3rd Declension Lengths of Time 308
felix (gen: felicis) lucky, fortunate, happy 22 Adjective: 3rd Declension Personality Traits/Characteristics 309
loquor, loqui, locutus sum to speak, say, tell 34 Verb: Deponent Speech/Oratory 310
quantus, quanta, quantum how large, how great, how much 30 Pronoun Pronouns/Interrogatives 311
coepi, coepisse, coeptum began 17 Verb: Irregular Time 312
ius, iuris (n) right, justice, law 14 Noun: 3rd Declension Justice 314
muto, mutāre, mutavi, mutatum to change, alter; exchange 14 Verb: 1st Conjugation Making/Doing 315
invenio, invenire, inveni, inventum to find, come upon, discover 10 Verb: 4th Conjugation Travel 316
princeps (gen: principis) chief, foremost 28 Adjective: 3rd Declension The City 317
ops, opis (f) help, aid 33 Noun: 3rd Declension Business/Money 318
recipio, recipere, recepi, receptum to take back, regain; admit, receive 24 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -iō Verbs of Transport 319
sol, solis (m) sun 27 Noun: 3rd Declension Air and Fire 320
consul, consulis (m) consul 11 Noun: 3rd Declension The City 321
turba, turbae (f) uproar, disturbance; mob, crowd, multitude 14 Noun: 1st Declension The City 323
ager, agri (m) field, farm 3 Noun: 2nd Declension Animals/Plants 324
vitium, vitii (n) fault, crime, vice 6 Noun: 2nd Declension Justice 326
vulnus, vulneris (n) wound 24 Noun: 3rd Declension Violence 327
senatus, senatus (m) senate 20 Noun: 4th Declension The City 329
utor, uti, usus sum (+abl) to use; enjoy, experience 34 Verb: Deponent Making/Doing 330
copia, copiae (f) supply, abundance (plural = supplies, troops, forces) 8 Noun: 1st Declension War and Peace 331
opus, operis (n) work, task; deed, accomplishment 38 Noun: 3rd Declension Business/Money 332
numerus, numeri (m) number 3 Noun: 2nd Declension Measurement 338
cognosco, cognoscere, cognovi, cognitum to become acquainted with, learn, recognize 30 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Education/Knowledge 339
patria, patriae (f) fatherland, native land, homeland 2 Noun: 1st Declension Geography 342
civitas, civitatis (f) state, citizenship 7 Noun: 3rd Declension The City 346
eripio, eripere, eripui, ereptum to snatch away, take away, rescue 22 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -iō Verbs of Transport 349
mundus, mundi (m) world, universe 21 Noun: 2nd Declension Earth and Water 350
cursus, cursus (m) running, race; course 28 Noun: 4th Declension Athletics 351
navis, navis (f)* ship, boat 21 Noun: 3rd Declension Travel 353
lacrima, lacrimae (f) tear 40 Noun: 1st Declension Emotions 354
humanus, humana, humanum pertaining to man, human; humane, kind, refined, cultivated 4 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension People 355
sidus, sideris (n) constellation, star 29 Noun: 3rd Declension Air and Fire 359
gloria, gloriae (f) glory 5 Noun: 1st Declension Social Life 360
auris, auris (f)* ear 14 Noun: 3rd Declension The Body 366
taceo, tacēre, tacui, tacitum to be silent, leave unmentioned 28 Verb: 2nd Conjugation Other Senses 369
ostendo, ostendere, ostendi, ostentum to exhibit, show, display 23 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Other Senses 371
turpis, turpe ugly; shameful, base, disgraceful 26 Adjective: 3rd Declension Other Senses 377
voluptas, voluptatis (f) pleasure 10 Noun: 3rd Declension Social Life 378
iniuria, inuriae (f) injury, injustice, wrong 39 Noun: 1st Declension Justice 381
dulcis, dulce sweet, pleasant, agreeable 16 Adjective: 3rd Declension Other Senses 383
ingenium, ingenii (n) nature, innate talent 29 Noun: 2nd Declension Education/Knowledge 387
pax, pacis (f) peace 7 Noun: 3rd Declension War and Peace 388
iuvo, iuvāre, iuvi, iutum to help 4 Verb: 1st Conjugation Social Life 390
doceo, docēre, docui, doctum to teach 8 Verb: 2nd Conjugation Education/Knowledge 393
excipio, excipere, excepi, exceptum to take out, except; take, receive, capture 24 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -iō Verbs of Transport 394
clarus, clara, clarum clear, bright, famous, renowned, illustrious 18 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Personality Traits/Characteristics 395
mora, morae (f) delay 4 Noun: 1st Declension Time 399
erro, errāre, erravi, erratum to err, go astray, make a mistake, be mistaken; wander 1 Verb: 1st Conjugation Travel 402
gaudeo, gaudēre, gavisus sum to rejoice, be glad 23 Verb: 2nd Conjugation Emotions 407
beatus, beata, beatum happy, fortunate, blessed 10 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Personality Traits/Characteristics 408
verus, vera, verum true, real, proper 4 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Speech/Oratory 410
incipio, incipere, incepi, inceptum to begin 17 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -iō Time 411
parco, parcere, peperci, parsurum (+dat) to be lenient to; spare 35 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō War and Peace 412
similis, simile (+ gen. or dat.) similar (to), like, resembling 27 Adjective: 3rd Declension Personality Traits/Characteristics 414
virgo, virginis (f) maiden, virgin, young woman 7 Noun: 3rd Declension People 418
lego, legere, legi, lectum to read; pick out, choose, select 18 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Writing/Poetry 419
forma, formae (f) form, shape; beauty 2 Noun: 1st Declension Other Senses 422
praesto, praestāre, praestiti, praestitum to excel; exhibit, show, offer, supply, furnish 28 Verb: 1st Conjugation Other Senses 423
misceo, miscēre, miscui, mixtum to mix, stir up, disturb 18 Verb: 2nd Conjugation Earth and Water 425
transeo, transire, transii, transitum to go across, cross; pass over, ignore 39 Verb: Irregular Travel 431
ultimus, -a, -um farthest, extreme; last, final 25 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Geography 432
gratus, grata, gratum grateful; pleasing, agreeable 37 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Personality Traits/Characteristics 434
laudo, laudāre, laudavi, laudatum to praise 1 Verb: 1st Conjugation Social Life 435
somnus, somni (m) sleep 26 Noun: 2nd Declension Life and Being 438
cupio, cupere, cupivi, cupitum to desire, wish, long for 17 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -iō Love 441
exspecto, expsectāre, exspectavi, exspectatum to look for, expect, await 15 Verb: 1st Conjugation Vision 442
laus, laudis (f) praise 8 Noun: 3rd Declension Social Life 444
studium, studii (n) zeal, eagerness, pursuit, study 9 Noun: 2nd Declension Emotions 450
facilis, facile easy, agreeable 16 Adjective: 3rd Declension Personality Traits/Characteristics 451
sapiens (gen: sapientis) wise, judicious 25 Adjective: 3rd Declension Education/Knowledge 453
nolo, nolle, nolui to not . . . wish, be unwilling 32 Verb: Irregular Emotions 458
plenus, plena, plenum full, abundant, generous 6 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Measurement 459
adversus, adversa, adversum opposite, adverse 34 Adverb War and Peace 460
carus, cara, carum dear 11 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Personality Traits/Characteristics 462
disco, discere, didici to learn 8 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Education/Knowledge 465
arbor, arboris (f) tree 38 Noun: 3rd Declension Animals/Plants 468
eo, ire, ii, itum to go (also: abeo, adeo, exeo, ineo, obeo, pereo, redeo) 37 Adverb Place 470
civis, civis (m/f)* citizen 14 Noun: 3rd Declension The City 471
specto, spectāre, spectavi, spectatum to look at, watch, see 34 Verb: 1st Conjugation Vision 473
donum, doni (n) gift, present 4 Noun: 2nd Declension Social Life 476
amitto, amittere, amisi, amissum to lose, let go 12 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Verbs of Compelling/Directing 486
anima, animae (f) soul, spirit 34 Noun: 1st Declension Life and Being 493
libertas, libertatis (f) freedom, liberty 8 Noun: 3rd Declension The City 495
servus, servi (m) or serva, servae (f) slave 24 Noun: 2nd Declension The Household 496
soror, sororis (f) sister 8 Noun: 3rd Declension The Household 497
exigo, exigere, exegi, exactum (ex + ago) to drive out, force out, exact; drive through, complete, perfect 36 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Verbs of Compelling/Directing 500
femina, feminae (f) woman 3 Noun: 1st Declension People 501
miror, mirāri, miratus sum to marvel at, admire, wonder 35 Verb: Deponent Emotions 504
sedeo, sedēre, sedi, sessum to sit 34 Verb: 2nd Conjugation The House 506
noceo, nocēre, nocui, nocitum (+dat) to do harm to, harm, injure 35 Verb: 2nd Conjugation Violence 509
intellego, intellegere, intellexi, intellectum to understand 11 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Education/Knowledge 512
iungo, iungere, iunxi, iunctum to join 13 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Making/Doing 513
cogito, cogitāre, cogitavi, cogitatum to think, ponder, consider, plan 1 Verb: 1st Conjugation Education/Knowledge 515
limen, liminis (n) threshold 26 Noun: 3rd Declension The House 516
dubito, dubitāre, dubitavi, dubitatum to doubt, hesitate 30 Verb: 1st Conjugation Education/Knowledge 521
odium, odii (n) hatred 38 Noun: 2nd Declension Emotions 522
nescio, nescire, nescivi, nescitum not to know, to be ignorant 25 Verb: 4th Conjugation Education/Knowledge 525
pecunia, pecuniae (f) money 2 Noun: 1st Declension Business/Money 530
tango, tangere, tetigi, tactum to touch 21 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Other Senses 534
respondeo, respondēre, respondi, responsum to answer 29 Verb: 2nd Conjugation Speech/Oratory 535
timor, timoris (m) fear 10 Noun: 3rd Declension Emotions 536
valeo, valēre, valui, valiturum to be strong, have power; be well 1 Verb: 2nd Conjugation Social Life 539
condo, condere, condidi, conditum to put together/into, store; found, establish 29 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō The City 540
auxilium, auxilii (n) help, aid 31 Noun: 2nd Declension War and Peace 543
auctor, auctoris (m) increaser, author, originator 19 Noun: 3rd Declension Writing/Poetry 546
animal, animalis (n)* animal, living creature 14 Noun: 3rd Declension Animals/Plants 547
salus, salutis (f) health, safety; greeting 21 Noun: 3rd Declension Life and Being 549
pateo, patēre, patui to be open, lie open; be accessible; be evident 32 Verb: 2nd Conjugation Geography 550
rogo, rogāre, rogavi, rogatum to ask 30 Verb: 1st Conjugation Speech/Oratory 551
uxor, uxoris (f) wife 7 Noun: 3rd Declension The Household 552
rego, regere, rexi, rectum to rule, guide, direct 16 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō The City 554
senex (gen: senis) old, aged 16 Noun: 3rd Declension People 558
curro, currere, cucurri, cursum to run, rush, move quickly 14 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Athletics 562
pello, pellere, pepuli, pulsum to strike, push; drive out, banish 24 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Violence 563
potens (gen: potentis) powerful 16 Adjective: 3rd Declension Personality Traits/Characteristics 567
scribo, scribere, scripsi, scriptum to write, compose 8 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Writing/Poetry 568
pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum beautiful 5 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Vision 569
surgo, surgere, surrexi, surrectum to get up, arise 29 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Earth and Water 570
careo, carēre, carui, cariturum (+abl) to be without, to be deprived of, want, lack; be free from 20 Verb: 2nd Conjugation Business/Money 572
praebeo, praebēre, praebui, praebitum to offer, provide 32 Verb: 2nd Conjugation Verbs of Transport 584
sententia, sententiae (f) feeling, though, opinion, vote, sentence 2 Noun: 1st Declension Education/Knowledge 586
acer, acris, acre sharp, keep, eager; severe, fierce 16 Adjective: 3rd Declension Other Senses 587
brevis, breve short, small, brief 16 Adjective: 3rd Declension Measurement 589
cornu, cornus (n) horn 20 Noun: 4th Declension Animals/Plants 591
moenia, moenium (n) city walls 29 Noun: 3rd Declension The City 593
vinculum, vinculi (n) chain, bond, fetter 36 Noun: 2nd Declension War and Peace 594
malo, malle, malui to want (something) more, instead; prefer 32 Verb: Irregular Emotions 598
impero, imperāre, imperavi, imperatum (+dat) to give orders to, command 35 Verb: 1st Conjugation War and Peace 602
prohibeo, prohibēre, prohibui, prohibitum to keep (back), prevent, hinder, restrain 20 Verb: 2nd Conjugation Verbs of Compelling/Directing 604
officium, officii (n) duty, service 4 Noun: 2nd Declension The City 607
committo, committere, comisi, comissum to entrust, commit 15 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Social Life 608
cresco, crescere, crevi, cretum to increase 34 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Animals/Plants 609
aequus, aequa, aequum level, even; calm, equal, just; favorable 22 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Justice 610
factum, facti (n) deed, act, achievement 13 Noun: 2nd Declension Making/Doing 611
accedo, accedere, accessi, accessum to come (to), approach 36 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Motion 614
contemno, contemnere, contempsi, contemptum to despise, scorn 36 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Emotions 615
antiquus, antiqua, antiquum ancient, old 2 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Lengths of Time 617
memoria, memoriae (f) memory, recollection 15 Noun: 1st Declension Education/Knowledge 627
arx, arcis (f)* citadel, stronghold 23 Noun: 3rd Declension The City 638
vinum, vini (n) wine 31 Noun: 2nd Declension Animals/Plants 640
confero, conferre, contuli, collatum to bring together, compare; confer, bestow 31 Verb: Irregular Verbs of Transport 645
spero, sperāre, speravi, speratum to hope for, hope 25 Verb: 1st Conjugation Emotions 648
plebs, plebis (f) the common people, populace, plebeians 33 Noun: 3rd Declension The City 649
defendo, defendere, defendi, defensum to ward off; defend, protect 20 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō War and Peace 653
cerno, cernere, crevi, cretum to distinguish, discern, perceive 22 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Education/Knowledge 655
superbus, superba, superbum arrogant, overbearing, haughty, proud 26 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Personality Traits/Characteristics 656
adversus, adversa, adversum opposite, adverse 34 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension War and Peace 657
morbus, morbi (m) disease, sickness 9 Noun: 2nd Declension The Body 658
communis, commune common, general, of/for the community 20 Adjective: 3rd Declension The City 660
hora, horae (f) hour, time 10 Noun: 1st Declension Lengths of Time 664
supero, superāre, superavi, superatum to be above, have the upper hand, surpass; overcome, conquer 5 Verb: 1st Conjugation War and Peace 668
vulgus, vulgi (n) the common people, mob, rabble 21 Noun: 2nd Declension The City 675
praemium, praemii (n) reward, prize 35 Noun: 2nd Declension Business/Money 680
fateor, fatēri, fassus sum to confess, admit 34 Verb: Deponent Justice 689
amicitia, amicitiae (f) friendship 10 Noun: 1st Declension Social Life 690
os, oris (n) mouth, face 14 Noun: 3rd Declension The Body 696
interficio, interficere, interfeci, interfectum to kill, murder 37 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -iō Violence 699
appello, appellāre, appellavi, appellatum to speak to, address (as), call, name 14 Verb: 1st Conjugation Social Life 700
spiritus, spiritus (m) breath, breathing; spirit, soul 20 Noun: 4th Declension Life and Being 703
terreo, terrēre, terrui, territum to frighten, terrify 1 Verb: 2nd Conjugation Emotions 705
invidia, invidiae (f) jealousy 31 Noun: 1st Declension Emotions 707
pugno, pugnāre, pugnavi, pugnatum to fight 29 Verb: 1st Conjugation Violence 708
littera, litterae (f) a letter of the alphabet; (plural = letter, literature) 7 Noun: 1st Declension Writing/Poetry 710
moneo, monēre, monui, monitum to warn, remind, advise 1 Verb: 2nd Conjugation Speech/Oratory 711
divitiae, divitiarum (f) riches, wealth 13 Noun: 1st Declension Business/Money 712
experior, experiri, expertus sum to try, test; experience 39 Verb: Deponent Education/Knowledge 713
otium, otii (n) leisure, peace 4 Noun: 2nd Declension Social Life 715
promitto, promittere, promisi, promissum to send forth; promise 32 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Verbs of Compelling/Directing 720
imperator, imperatoris (m) general, commander-in-chief, emperor 24 Noun: 3rd Declension War and Peace 723
discedo, discedere, discessi, discessum to go away, depart 20 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Travel 726
caecus, -a, -um blind 17 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Vision 728
lingua, linguae (f) language; tongue 25 Noun: 1st Declension The Body 732
for, fāri, fatus sum to speak (prophetically), talk, foretell 40 Verb: Deponent Speech/Oratory 739
humus, humi (f) ground, earth; soil 37 Noun: 2nd Declension Earth and Water 740
curo, curāre, curavi, curatum to care for, attend to; heal, cure 36 Verb: 1st Conjugation Love 743
aes, aeris (n) bronze 40 Noun: 3rd Declension Business/Money 744
celer, celeris, celere quick, swift, rapid 16 Adjective: 3rd Declension Time 745
mensa, mensae (f) table 26 Noun: 1st Declension The House 747
iudicium, iudicii (n) judgement, decision, opinion; trial 19 Noun: 2nd Declension Justice 749
victoria, victoriae (f) victory 8 Noun: 1st Declension War and Peace 750
tempestas, tempestatis (f) period of time, season; weather; storm 15 Noun: 3rd Declension Lengths of Time 753
oro, orāre, oravi, oratum to speak, plead; beg, beseech, entreat, pray 36 Verb: 1st Conjugation Religion 755
porta, portae (f) gate, entrance 2 Noun: 1st Declension The City 759
reperio, reperire, repperi, repertum to find, discover, learn; get 40 Verb: 4th Conjugation Education/Knowledge 765
culpa, culpae (f) blame, fault 5 Noun: 1st Declension Justice 769
iustus, iusta, iustum just, right 40 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Justice 770
fluo, fluere, fluxi, fluxum to flow 18 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Earth and Water 772
licet, licere, licuit (impersonal) it is permitted, one may 37 Conjunction Justice 778
probo, probāre, probavi, probatum to approve, recommend; test 27 Verb: 1st Conjugation Verbs of Compelling/Directing 784
doleo, dolēre, dolui, doliturum to grieve, suffer, hurt, give pain 31 Verb: 2nd Conjugation Emotions 785
odi, odisse, osum to hate 20 Verb: Irregular Emotions 790
sensus, sensus (m) feeling, sense 20 Noun: 4th Declension Emotions 793
exsilium, exsilii (n) exile, banishment 31 Noun: 2nd Declension Travel 794
sapientia, sapientiae (f) wisdom 3 Noun: 1st Declension Education/Knowledge 797
decerno, decernere,decrevi, decretum to decide, settle, decree 36 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Education/Knowledge 800
occido, occidere, occidi, occasum to fall down; die; set 31 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Violence 801
contineo, continēre, continui, contentum to hold together, contain, keep, enclose 21 Verb: 2nd Conjugation Verbs of Compelling/Directing 804
oportet, oportere, oportuit (impersonal) it is proper, right, necessary 39 Verb: Impersonal Social Life 806
forum, fori (n) forum, marketplace 26 Noun: 2nd Declension The City 811
offero, offere, obtuli, oblatum to offer 31 Verb: Irregular Verbs of Transport 812
alo, alere, alui, altum to nourish, support, sustain, increase; cherish 13 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Life and Being 817
proficiscor, proficisci, profectus sum to set out, start 34 Verb: Deponent Travel 835
secundus, secunda, secundum second; favorable 6 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Measurement 836
iudex, iudicis (m) judge, juror 19 Noun: 3rd Declension Justice 839
nimis or nimium too, too much, excessively 9 Adverb Personality Traits/Characteristics 841
pauper (gen: pauperis) of small means, poor 32 Adjective: 3rd Declension Business/Money 844
pareo, parēre, parui (+dat) to be obedient to, obey 35 Verb: 2nd Conjugation Verbs of Compelling/Directing 847
utilis, utile useful, advantageous 27 Adjective: 3rd Declension Making/Doing 850
pauci, paucae, pauca few, a few 3 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Measurement 858
difficilis, difficile difficult, hard, troublesome 16 Adjective: 3rd Declension Personality Traits/Characteristics 861
initium, initii (n) beginning, commencement 33 Noun: 2nd Declension Time 865
consumo, consumere, consumpsi, consumptum to consume, use up 30 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Life and Being 869
rideo, ridēre, risi, risum to laugh, laugh at 24 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Emotions 874
rus, ruris (n) the country, countryside 37 Noun: 3rd Declension Geography 879
vito, vitāre, vitavi, vitatum shun, avoid 14 Verb: 1st Conjugation Social Life 881
servio, servire, servivi, servitum (+dat) to be a slave to, serve 35 Verb: 4th Conjugation The Household 883
vereor, verēri, veritus sum to show reverence for, respect; be afraid of 40 Verb: Deponent Emotions 884
hortor, hortāri, hortatus sum to encourage, urge 34 Verb: Deponent Speech/Oratory 887
perpetuus, perpetua, perpetuum perpetual, lasting, uninterrupted, continuous 6 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Lengths of Time 891
desidero, desiderāre, desideravi, desideratum to desire, long for, miss 17 Verb: 1st Conjugation Love 892
iacio, iacere, ieci, iactum to thow; hurl 15 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -iō Athletics 899
laboro, laborāre, laboravi, laboratum to labor; be in distress 21 Verb: 1st Conjugation Business/Money 900
liber, libera, liberum free 5 Noun: 2nd Declension Writing/Poetry 901
liber, libri (m) book 6 Noun: 2nd Declension Writing/Poetry 901
luna, lunae (f) moon 28 Noun: 1st Declension Air and Fire 902
conor, conāri, conatus sum to try, attempt 34 Verb: Deponent Making/Doing 905
cupido, cupidinis (f) desire, passion 36 Noun: 3rd Declension Love 906
insula, insulae (f) island 23 Noun: 1st Declension Geography 908
filia, filiae (f) daughter (filiabus: dat. and abl. pl.) 3 Noun: 1st Declension The Household 909
narro, narrāre, narravi, narratum to tell, report, narrate 24 Verb: 1st Conjugation Speech/Oratory 910
egredior, egredi, egressus sum to go out 34 Verb: Deponent Travel 912
poeta, poetae (m) poet 2 Noun: 1st Declension Writing/Poetry 913
fructus, fructus (m) fruit; profit, benefit, enjoyment 20 Noun: 4th Declension Animals/Plants 927
magister, magistri (m) or magistra, ae (f) 4 Noun: 2nd Declension Education/Knowledge 933
stella, stellae (f) star 28 Noun: 1st Declension Air and Fire 934
educo, educāre, educavi, educatum to bring up, educate 23 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Verbs of Compelling/Directing 935
suscipio, suscipere, suscepi, susceptum to undertake 25 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -iō Verbs of Transport 937
sacerdos, sacerdotis (m) priest 23 Noun: 3rd Declension Religion 939
vicinus, vicini (m) neighbor 21 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Geography 940
familia, familiae (f) household, family 19 Noun: 1st Declension The Household 943
sanus, sana, sanum sound, healthy, sane 5 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Life and Being 946
principium, principii (n) beginning 12 Noun: 2nd Declension Time 948
mortalis, mortale mortal 18 Adjective: 3rd Declension Life and Being 950
dignitas, dignitatis (f) merit, prestige, dignity 38 Noun: 3rd Declension Personality Traits/Characteristics 956
mulier, mulieris (f) woman 39 Noun: 3rd Declension People 961
arbitror, arbitrāri, arbitratus sum to judge, think 34 Verb: Deponent Education/Knowledge 963
fabula, fabulae (f) story, tale; play 24 Noun: 1st Declension Writing/Poetry 966
scientia, scientiae (f) knowledge 18 Noun: 1st Declension Education/Knowledge 971
diligo, diligere, dilexi, dilectum to esteem, love 13 Verb: 3rd Conjugation -ō Love 973
dormio, dormire, dormivi, dormitum to sleep 31 Verb: 4th Conjugation Life and Being 975
creo, creāre, creavi, creatum to create 12 Verb: 1st Conjugation Making/Doing 978
fidelis, fidele faithful, loyal 25 Adjective: 3rd Declension Personality Traits/Characteristics 979
studeo, studēre, studui (+dat) to direct one’s zeal to, be eager for, study 35 Verb: 2nd Conjugation Emotions 989
mundus, mundi (m) world, universe 21 Adjective: 1st and 2nd Declension Personality Traits/Characteristics 997
absens (gen: absentis) absent 37
acerbus, acerba, acerbum harsh, bitter, grievous 12
adfero, adferre, attuli, allatum to bring to 31
admitto, admittere, admisi, admissum to admit, receive, let in 17
adulescens, adulescentis (m/f) young man or woman 12
adulescentia, adulescentiae (f) youth, young manhood; youthfulness 5
aedificium, aedificii (n) building, structure 39
aestas, aestatis (f) summer 35
agricola, agricolae (m) farmer 3
ait, aiunt he says, they say 25
ambulo, ambulāre, ambulavi, ambulatum to walk 39
amica, amicae (f) and amicus, amici (m) friend 3
ante (+acc) before, in front of 13
antepono, anteponere, anteposui, antepositum to put before, prefer 35
argumentum, argumenti (n) proof, evidence, argument 19
as, assis (m) an as 31
Asia, Asiae (f) Asia 12
asper, aspera, asperum rough, harsh 21
at but; but, mind you; but, you say (more emotional than sed) 19
Athenae, Athenarum (f) Athens 37
auditor, auditoris (m) hearer, listener; member of an audience 16
aut or (aut . . . aut 17
autem (post positive) however; moreover 11
avarus, avara, avarum greedy, avaricious 3
basium, basii (n) kiss 4
bellus, bella, bellum pretty, handsome, charming 4
bene well, satisfactorily, quite 11
bibo, bibere, bibi to drink 30
Caesar, Caesaris (m) (Gaius Julius) Caesar 12
candidatus, -a, -um shining, bright, white; beautiful 33
carpo, carpere, carpsi, carptum to harvest, pluck; seize 36
Carthago, Carthaginis (f) Carthage 24
casa, casae (f) house, cottage, hut 21
cena, cenae (f) dinner 26
ceno, cenāre, cenavi, cenatum to dine 5
centum hundred 15
ceteri, ceterae, cetera the remaining, the rest, the other, all the others 30
Cicero, Ciceronis (m) (Marcus Tullius) Cicero 8
cito quickly 17
clementia, clementiae (f) mercy, mildness, gentleness 16
comprehendo, comprehendere, comprehendi, comprehensum to grasp, seize, arrest; comprehend, understand 30
coniurati, coniuratorum (m) conspirators 20
contendo, contendere, contendi, contentum to strive, struggle, contend; hasten 29
contra (+acc) against 19
contundo, contundere, contudi, contusum to beat, crush, bruise, destroy 36
cotidie daily, every day 36
cras tomorrow 5
culpo, culpāre, culpavi, culpatum to blame, censure 5
cum (+abl) with 10
cum (+subjunctive) when, since, although; (+indicative) when 31
cupiditas, cupiditatis (f) desire, longing, passion; avarice, cupidity 10
cupidus, cupida, cupidum desirous, eager, fond; (often +gen.) 39
cur why 18
custodia, custodiae (f) protection, custody (pl: guards) 32
de (+ablative) down from, from; concerning, about 3
dea, deae (f) goddess 6
dedico, dedicāre, dedicavi, dedicatum to dedicate 28
dehinc then, next 25
deinde then, next, thereupon 18
delectatio, delectationis (f) delight, pleasure, enjoyment 27
delecto, delectāre, delectavi, delectatum to delight, charm, please 19
deleo, delēre, delevi, deletum to destroy, wipe out, erase 17
demonstro, demonstrāre, demonstravi, demonstratum to point out, show 8
denique finally, at last, lastly 29
digitus, digiti (m) finger, toe 31
diligens diligent, careful 27
discipula, discipulae (f) and discipulus, discipuli (m) learner, pupil, student 6
dissimilis, dissimile unlike, different 27
diu for a long time 12
dives (gen: divitis or ditis) rich 32
doctus, docta, doctum taught, learned, skilled 13
dum while, as long as 8
dummodo (+subjunctive) provided that, so long as 32
egeo, egēre, egui (+ abl. or gen.) to need, lack, want 28
elephantus, elephanti (m) elephant 31
enim (post positive) for; in fact, truly 9
erga (+acc) toward 38
est is 2
et and (et . . . et 2
etiam even, also 11
etsi even if 38
ex (+abl) out of, from, from within; by reason of, on account of 8
exitium, exitii (n) destruction, ruin 4
expello, expellere, expuli, expulsum to drive out, expel, banish 24
expleo, explēre, explevi, expletum to fill, fill up, complete 28
explico, explicāre, explicavi, explicatum to unfold; explain; spread out, deploy 40
expono, exponere, exposui, expositum to set forth, explain, expose 30
fatigo, fatigāre, fatigavi, fatigatum to weary, tire out 40
fenestra, fenestrae (f) window 21
ferox fierce, savage 25
filius, filii (m) son 3
firmus, firma, firmum firm, strong; reliable 38
foris out of doors, outside 37
fortasse perhaps 36
fortunatus, fortunata, fortunatum forunate, lucky, happy 13
foveo, fovēre, fovi, fotum to comfort, nurture, cherish 35
furtim stealthily, secretly 30
geminus, -a, -um twin 25
genu, genus (n) knee 20
gracilis, gracile slender, thin 27
Graecia, Graeciae (f) Greece 19
Graecus, Graeca, Graecum Greek 6
hasta, hastae (f) spear 23
heri yesterday 5
heu ah! alas! 33
hīc here 25
hodie today 3
humilis, humile humble, lowly 27
iam now, already, soon 19
ianua, ianuae (f) door 35
ibi there 6
idoneus, idonea, idoneum suitable, fit, appropriate 37
igitur (post positive) therefore, consequently 5
ignosco, ignoscere, ignovi, ignotum (+dat) to grant pardon to, forgive 35
immortalis, immortale not subject to death, immortal 19
immotus, immota, immotum unmoved; unchanged; unrelenting 37
in (+ablative) in, on 3
in (+acc) into, on to, toward; against 9
incertus, incerta, incertum uncertain, unsure, doubtful 22
infirmus, infirma, infirmum not strong, weak, feeble 38
inquit he says, he said 22
insidiae, insidiarum (f) ambush, plot, treachery 6
inter (+acc) between, among 15
invideo, invidēre, invidi, invisum to be envious (+dat), to look at with envy, to envy, be jealous of 31
invito, invitāre, invitavi, invitatum to entertain, invite; summon 26
iratus, irata, iratum angry 35
ita so thus 29
Italia, Italiae (f) Italy 15
itaque and so, therefore 15
iterum again, a second time 21
iucundus, iucunda, iucundum pleasant, delightful, agreeable, pleasing 16
Latinus, Latina, Latinum Latin 22
lector, lectoris (m) & lectrix lectricis (f) reader 36
libellus, libelli (m) little book 17
libenter with pleasure, gladly 38
liberalis, liberale of, relating to a free person; worthy of a free man, decent, liberal; generous 39
libero, liberāre, liberavi, liberatum to free, set free, liberate 19
libo, libāre, libavi, libatum to pour a libation on; pour ritually; sip; touch gently 39
ludus, ludi (m) game, sport; school 18
magnanimus, magnanima, magnanimum great-hearted, brave, magnanimous 23
maior, maius greater; older 27
me me, myself (accusative case) 1
medicus, medici (m) doctor, physician 12
mediocris, mediocre ordinary, moderate, mediocre 31
merus, -a, -um pure, undiluted 33
meta, metae (f) turning point, goal; limit, boundary 40
mille thousand 15
minuo, minuere, minui, minutum to lessen, diminish 30
mirabilis, mirabile amazing, wondrous 38
molior, moliri, molitus sum to work at, build, undertake, plan 34
mollio, mollire, mollivi, mollitum to soften; make calm, make less hostile 29
monumentum, monumenti (n) monument 40
mortuus, mortua, mortuum dead 28
mox soon 30
nam for 13
nasus, nasi (m) nose 40
nata, natae (f) daughter 29
nauta, nautae (m) sailor 2
navigo, navigāre, navigavi, navigatum to sail, navigate 17
ne (+subjunct) not, in order that . . . not, that . . . not, in order not to 28
necesse necessary, inevitable 39
neco, necāre, necavi, necatum to kill, murder 7
neglego, neglegere, neglexi, neglectum to neglect, disregard 17
nepos, nepotis (m) grandson, descendant 27
neuter, neutra neutrum neither, not either 9
nihil nothing 1
nihil nothing 4
nimium too, too much, excessively 9
nisi if . . . not, unless 19
non not 1
nonne introduces question anticipating a “yes” 40
nubes, nubis (f)* cloud 14
nubo, nubere, nupsi, nuptum to cover, veil; (+dat) to be married to, marry 35
num 1. introduces question anticipating a “no”. 2. introduces indirect questions and means “whether.” 40
numquam never 8
nunc now 6
nuntio, nuntiāre, nuntiavi, nuntiatum to announce, report, relate 25
nuper recently 12
oblecto, oblectāre, oblectavi, oblectatum to please, amuse, delight; pass time pleasantly 36
occasio, occasionis (f) occasion, opportunity 28
olim at that time, once, formerly; in the future 13
omnino wholly, entirely, altogether 40
opinor, opināri, opinatus sum to suppose 40
opprimo, opprimere, oppressi, oppressum to suppress, overwhelm, overpower, check 23
oppugno, oppugnāre, oppugnavi, oppugnatum to fight against, attack, assault, assail 39
orator, oratoris (m) orator; speaker 23
orno, ornāre, ornavi, ornatum to equip, furnish, adorn 39
osculum, osculi (n) kiss 29
patefacio, patefacere, patefeci, patefactum to make open, open; disclose, expose 25
patientia, patientiae (f) suffering; patience, endurance 12
paupertas, paupertatis (f) poverty 32
per (+acc) through 13
peregrinor, peregrinari, peregrinatus sum to travel abroad, wander 37
perfugium, perfugii (n) refuge, solace, shelter 24
pernocto, pernoctāre, pernoctavi, pernoctatum to spend the night 39
persuadeo, persuadēre, persuasi, persuasum (+dat) to succeed in urging, persuade, convince 35
philosophia, philosophiae (f) philosophy 2
philosophus, philosophi (m) philosopher 33
post (+acc) after, behind 7
postea afterwards 24
postremum after all, finally; for the last time 40
prae (+abl) in front of, before 26
praeter (+acc) besides, except; beyond, past 40
primo at first, at the beginning 30
pristinus, pristina, pristinum ancient; former, previous 38
pro (+abl) in front of, before, on behalf of, for the sake of, in return for, instead of, for, as 12
probitas, probitatis (f) uprightness, honesty 18
pronuntio, pronuntiāre, pronuntiavi, pronuntiatum to proclaim, announce, declaim; pronounce 20
propter (+accusative) on account of, because of 5
protinus immediately 22
pudicus, pudica, pudicum modest, chaste 26
quam how 16
quam than 26
quando when 5
quare because of which thing, therefore, wherefore, why 6
quasi as if, as it were 39
que and (suffix added to the end a word, joining it to the previous) 6
qui? quae? quod? (interrogative adj) 19
quid what 1
quidem indeed, certainly, at least, even 29
quin indeed, in fact 40
quis? quid? (interrogative pronoun) who? whose? whom? what? which? 19
quod because 11
quondam formerly, once 22
quoniam since, inasmuch as 10
quoque also, too 17
quot how many, as many as 27
recito, recitāre, recitavi, recitatum to read aloud, recite 17
recreo, recreāre, recreavi, recreatum to restore, revive; refresh, cheer 36
recuso, recusāre, recusavi, recusatum to refuse 33
regina, reginae (f) queen 7
remaneo, remanēre, remansi, remansum (or maneo) to remain, stay; stay behind, abide, continue 5
remedium, remedii (n) cure, remedy 4
remissio, remissionis (f) letting go, release; relaxation 34
repente suddenly 30
requiesco, requiescere, requievi, requietum to rest 37
requiro, requirere, requisivi, requisitum to seek, ask for; miss, need, require 36
res publica, rei publicae (f) state, commonwealth, republic 22
ridiculus, ridicula, ridiculum laughable, ridiculous 30
Roma, Romae (f) Rome 14
Romanus, Romana, Romanum Roman 3
rosa, rosae (f) rose 2
rumor, rumoris (m) rumor, gossip 31
rusticor, rusticāri, rusticatus sum to live in the country 34
saepe often 1
sal, salis (m) salt; wit 33
salveo, salvēre to be well, be in good health 1
salvus, salva, salvum safe, sound 6
sapio, sapere, sapivi to have good taste; have good sense, be wise 35
satio, satiāre, satiavi, satiatum to satisfy, sate 3
satis enough, sufficient 5
sator, satoris (m) sower, planter; begetter, father; founder 38
satura, saturae (f) satire 16
sauvis, suave sweet 33
scriptor, scriptoris (m) writer, author 8
sed but 2
semel a single time, once, once and for all, simultaneously 31
semper always 3
senectus, senectutis (f) old age 10
sereno, serenāre, serenavi, serenatum to make clear, brighten; cheer up, soothe 36
servitus, servitutis (f) slavery, servitude 20
si if 1
sic so thus 29
sine (+ablative) without 2
sinister, sinistra, sinistrum left, left 20
solacium, solacii (n) comfort, relief 24
speculum, speculi (n) mirror 33
stultus, stulta, stultum foolish 4
subito suddenly 33
sublimis, sublime elevated, lofty; heroic, noble 38
subrideo, subridēre, subrisi, subrisum to smile (down) upon 35
sui (reflexive pronoun) him/her/itself, themselves 13
Syracusae, Syracusarum (f) Syracuse 37
tam so, to such a degree (tam . . quam 29
tamen nevertheless, still 8
tantum only 26
te you (accusative) 5
tolero, tolerāre, toleravi, toleratum to bear, endure 6
tot so many 40
trans (+acc) across 14
transitus, transitus (m) passing over, transit; transition 39
Troia, Troiae (f) Troy 21
tum then, at that time; thereupon, in the next place 5
tyrannus, tyranni (m) absolute ruler, tyrant 6
ubi where, when 6
ultra (+acc) beyond, on the other side of 22
umquam ever, at any time 23
unde whence, from what/which place, from which, from whom 30
urbanus, urbana, urbanum of the city, urban; urbane, elegant 26
usque all the way up (to), even (to), continuously, always 31
ut (+indic) as, just as, when 24
ut (+indic) as, when; (+subjunct) in order that, so that, that, in order to, so as to, to 28
uter, utra, utrum either, which (of two) 9
utrum . . . an whether . . . or 30
vae (often +dat) alas, woe to 34
veritas, veritatis (f) truth 10
vero in truth, indeed, to be sure, however 29
versus, versus (m) line of verse, verse 20
vesper, vesperis/vesperi (m) evening; evening star 28
videor, vidēri, visus sum to be seen; seem, appear 18
vivus, viva, vivum living, alive 30
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